# 区块链热门编程语言 GO、RUST、TypeScript、WASM 能打败 Python 和 JS 吗？

Python 和 JavaScript 是当今最热门的两种编程语言。但是，它们不可能永远位居榜首。最终，它们一定会失宠，就像所有的编程语言一样。这很可能在未来十年内就会发生。

Dart

class Complex {

double _r,_i;

Complex(this._r,this._i);

double get r => _r;

double get i => _i;

String toString() => “(\$r,\$i)”;

Complex operator +(Complex other) => new Complex(r+other.r,i+other.i);

Complex operator *(Complex other) =>

new Complex(r*other.r-i*other.i,r*other.i+other.r*i);

double abs() => r*r+i*i;

}

void main() {

double start_x=-1.5;

double start_y=-1.0;

double step_x=0.03;

double step_y=0.1;

for(int y=0;y<20;y++) {

String line=””;

for(int x=0;x<70;x++) {

Complex c=new Complex(start_x+step_x*x,start_y+step_y*y);

Complex z=new Complex(0.0, 0.0);

for(int i=0;i<100;i++) {

z=z*(z)+c;

if(z.abs()>2) {

break;

}

}

line+=z.abs()>2 ? ” ” : “*”;

}

print(line);

}

}

Elixir

Elixir 是 Erlang 的派生语言，具有改进的语法，以及与 Erlang 相同的、惊人的并发性支持。作为一种纯函数式语言，它很有可能将这一范式提升为主流。

defmodule Mandelbrot do

def set do

xsize = 59

ysize = 21

minIm = -1.0

maxIm = 1.0

minRe = -2.0

maxRe = 1.0

stepX = (maxRe – minRe) / xsize

stepY = (maxIm – minIm) / ysize

Enum.each(0..ysize, fn y ->

im = minIm + stepY * y

Enum.map(0..xsize, fn x ->

re = minRe + stepX * x

62 – loop(0, re, im, re, im, re*re+im*im)

end) |> IO.puts

end)

end

defp loop(n, _, _, _, _, _) when n>=30, do: n

defp loop(n, _, _, _, _, v) when v>4.0, do: n-1

defp loop(n, re, im, zr, zi, _) do

a = zr * zr

b = zi * zi

loop(n+1, re, im, a-b+re, 2*zr*zi+im, a+b)

end

end

Mandelbrot.set

Golang

package main

import (

“fmt”

“image”

“image/color”

“image/draw”

“image/png”

“math/cmplx”

“os”

)

const (

maxEsc = 100

rMin = -2.

rMax = .5

iMin = -1.

iMax = 1.

width = 750

red = 230

green = 235

blue = 255

)

func mandelbrot(a complex128) float64 {

i := 0

for z := a; cmplx.Abs(z) < 2 && i < maxEsc; i++ {

z = z*z + a

}

return float64(maxEsc-i) / maxEsc

}

func main() {

scale := width / (rMax – rMin)

height := int(scale * (iMax – iMin))

bounds := image.Rect(0, 0, width, height)

b := image.NewNRGBA(bounds)

draw.Draw(b, bounds, image.NewUniform(color.Black), image.ZP, draw.Src)

for x := 0; x < width; x++ {

for y := 0; y < height; y++ {

fEsc := mandelbrot(complex(

float64(x)/scale+rMin,

float64(y)/scale+iMin))

b.Set(x, y, color.NRGBA{uint8(red * fEsc),

uint8(green * fEsc), uint8(blue * fEsc), 255})

}

}

f, err := os.Create(“mandelbrot.png”)

if err != nil {

fmt.Println(err)

return

}

if err = png.Encode(f, b); err != nil {

fmt.Println(err)

}

if err = f.Close(); err != nil {

fmt.Println(err)

}

}

Julia

Julia 的优势在于它对数学计算的出色支持。数学友好的语法对数学家来说非常有用。如果有哪种语言可以推翻 Python，那么 Julia 肯定是一个竞争者。

using Images

@inline function hsv2rgb(h, s, v)

const c = v * s

const x = c * (1 – abs(((h/60) % 2) – 1))

const m = v – c

const r,g,b =

if h < 60

(c, x, 0)

elseif h < 120

(x, c, 0)

elseif h < 180

(0, c, x)

elseif h < 240

(0, x, c)

elseif h < 300

(x, 0, c)

else

(c, 0, x)

end

(r + m), (b + m), (g + m)

end

function mandelbrot()

const w, h = 1000, 1000

const zoom = 0.5

const moveX = 0

const moveY = 0

const img = Array{RGB{Float64}}(h, w)

const maxIter = 30

for x in 1:w

for y in 1:h

i = maxIter

const c = Complex(

(2*x – w) / (w * zoom) + moveX,

(2*y – h) / (h * zoom) + moveY

)

z = c

while abs(z) < 2 && (i -= 1) > 0

z = z^2 + c

end

const r,g,b = hsv2rgb(i / maxIter * 360, 1, i / maxIter)

img[y,x] = RGB{Float64}(r, g, b)

end

end

save(“mandelbrot_set.png”, img)

end

mandelbrot()

Kotlin

Kotlin 是更好的 Java。事实上，它实际上就是 Java 的一个可以立即使用的替代品。Google 已经将其打造成 Android 开发的一流语言。

import java.awt.Graphics

import java.awt.image.BufferedImage

import javax.swing.JFrame

class Mandelbrot: JFrame(“Mandelbrot Set”) {

companion object {

private const val MAX_ITER = 570

private const val ZOOM = 150.0

}

private val img: BufferedImage

init {

setBounds(100, 100, 800, 600)

isResizable = false

defaultCloseOperation = EXIT_ON_CLOSE

img = BufferedImage(width, height, BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB)

for (y in 0 until height) {

for (x in 0 until width) {

var zx = 0.0

var zy = 0.0

val cX = (x – 400) / ZOOM

val cY = (y – 300) / ZOOM

var iter = MAX_ITER

while (zx * zx + zy * zy < 4.0 && iter > 0) {

val tmp = zx * zx – zy * zy + cX

zy = 2.0 * zx * zy + cY

zx = tmp

iter–

}

img.setRGB(x, y, iter or (iter shl 7))

}

}

}

override fun paint(g: Graphics) {

g.drawImage(img, 0, 0, this)

}

}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {

Mandelbrot().isVisible = true

}

Lua

local maxIterations = 250

local minX, maxX, minY, maxY = -2.5, 2.5, -2.5, 2.5

local miX, mxX, miY, mxY

function remap( x, t1, t2, s1, s2 )

local f = ( x – t1 ) / ( t2 – t1 )

local g = f * ( s2 – s1 ) + s1

return g;

end

function drawMandelbrot()

local pts, a, as, za, b, bs, zb, cnt, clr = {}

for j = 0, hei – 1 do

for i = 0, wid – 1 do

a = remap( i, 0, wid, minX, maxX )

b = remap( j, 0, hei, minY, maxY )

cnt = 0; za = a; zb = b

while( cnt < maxIterations ) do

as = a * a – b * b; bs = 2 * a * b

a = za + as; b = zb + bs

if math.abs( a ) + math.abs( b ) > 16 then break end

cnt = cnt + 1

end

if cnt == maxIterations then clr = 0

else clr = remap( cnt, 0, maxIterations, 0, 255 )

end

pts[1] = { i, j, clr, clr, 0, 255 }

love.graphics.points( pts )

end

end

end

function startFractal()

love.graphics.setCanvas( canvas ); love.graphics.clear()

love.graphics.setColor( 255, 255, 255 )

drawMandelbrot(); love.graphics.setCanvas()

end

wid, hei = love.graphics.getWidth(), love.graphics.getHeight()

canvas = love.graphics.newCanvas( wid, hei )

startFractal()

end

function love.mousepressed( x, y, button, istouch )

if button == 1 then

startDrag = true; miX = x; miY = y

else

minX = -2.5; maxX = 2.5; minY = minX; maxY = maxX

startFractal()

startDrag = false

end

end

function love.mousereleased( x, y, button, istouch )

if startDrag then

local l

if x > miX then mxX = x

else l = x; mxX = miX; miX = l

end

if y > miY then mxY = y

else l = y; mxY = miY; miY = l

end

miX = remap( miX, 0, wid, minX, maxX )

mxX = remap( mxX, 0, wid, minX, maxX )

miY = remap( miY, 0, hei, minY, maxY )

mxY = remap( mxY, 0, hei, minY, maxY )

minX = miX; maxX = mxX; minY = miY; maxY = mxY

startFractal()

end

end

function love.draw()

love.graphics.draw( canvas )

end

Pharo

Pharo 是 Smalltalk 的现代变体，Smalltalk 是一种非常高效的面向对象编程语言。实际上，Smalltalk 是面向对象编程的典范，它几乎启发了地球上所有其他面向对象编程语言的灵感。最后，没有一种语言比 Smalltalk 更适合面向对象编程了。

Pharo 还是世界上最简单、最优雅的语言之一。你可以在 15 分钟内学会 Smalltalk 的全部语法！

Object subclass: #FractalTree

instanceVariableNames: ”

classVariableNames: ”

poolDictionaries: ”

category: ‘RosettaCode’

“Methods for FractalTree class”

tree: aPoint length: aLength angle: anAngle

| p a |

(aLength > 10) ifTrue: [

p := Pen new.

p up.

p goto: aPoint.

p turn: anAngle.

p down.

5 timesRepeat: [

p go: aLength / 5.

p turn: 5.

].

a := anAngle – 30.

3 timesRepeat: [

self tree: p location length: aLength * 0.7 angle: a.

a := a + 30.

]

].

draw

Display restoreAfter: [

Display fillWhite.

self tree: 700@700 length: 200 angle: 0.

]

“Execute”

FractalTree new draw.

Rust

Rust 因其内存安全特性：借位检查器而得到了广泛的认可。这个特性实际上消除了所有与内存相关的编程错误。Rust 保证了编程的安全性。

extern crate image;

extern crate num_complex;

use std::fs::File;

use num_complex::Complex;

fn main() {

let max_iterations = 256u16;

let img_side = 800u32;

let cxmin = -2f32;

let cxmax = 1f32;

let cymin = -1.5f32;

let cymax = 1.5f32;

let scalex = (cxmax – cxmin) / img_side as f32;

let scaley = (cymax – cymin) / img_side as f32;

// Create a new ImgBuf

let mut imgbuf = image::ImageBuffer::new(img_side, img_side);

// Calculate for each pixel

for (x, y, pixel) in imgbuf.enumerate_pixels_mut() {

let cx = cxmin + x as f32 * scalex;

let cy = cymin + y as f32 * scaley;

let c = Complex::new(cx, cy);

let mut z = Complex::new(0f32, 0f32);

let mut i = 0;

for t in 0..max_iterations {

if z.norm() > 2.0 {

break;

}

z = z * z + c;

i = t;

}

*pixel = image::Luma([i as u8]);

}

// Save image

let fout = &mut File::create(“fractal.png”).unwrap();

image::ImageLuma8(imgbuf).save(fout, image::PNG).unwrap();

}

TypeScript

TypeScript 是 JavaScript……带来了好处。它主要是添加了静态类型。与 JavaScript 的兼容性使它成为前端 Web 开发人员的最爱，因为他们已经了解 JavaScript，而且几乎不需要改变他们的工作流程。

// Set up canvas for drawing

var canvas: HTMLCanvasElement = document.createElement(‘canvas’)

canvas.width = 600

canvas.height = 500

document.body.appendChild(canvas)

var ctx: CanvasRenderingContext2D = canvas.getContext(‘2d’)

ctx.fillStyle = ‘#000’

ctx.lineWidth = 1

// constants

const degToRad: number = Math.PI / 180.0

const totalDepth: number = 9

/** Helper function that draws a line on the canvas */

function drawLine(x1: number, y1: number, x2: number, y2: number): void {

ctx.moveTo(x1, y1)

ctx.lineTo(x2, y2)

}

/** Draws a branch at the given point and angle and then calls itself twice */

function drawTree(x1: number, y1: number, angle: number, depth: number): void {

if (depth !== 0) {

let x2: number = x1 + (Math.cos(angle * degToRad) * depth * 10.0)

let y2: number = y1 + (Math.sin(angle * degToRad) * depth * 10.0)

drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2)

drawTree(x2, y2, angle – 20, depth – 1)

drawTree(x2, y2, angle + 20, depth – 1)

}

}

// actual drawing of tree

ctx.beginPath()

drawTree(300, 500, -90, totalDepth)

ctx.closePath()

ctx.stroke()

WebAssembly

WebAssembly 是一匹黑马。在未来十年左右的时间里，它可能会衍生出一系列的语言，这些语言有望最终登上榜首。WebAssembly 只是一个编译目标，但没有理由说它不能扩展到 Web 领域以外的地方。至于哪些基于 WebAssembly 的语言可以登上榜首？现在谁也说不准。

Richard Kenneth Eng，博主。Smalltalk 布道师。退休的软件工程师。《复仇者联盟》粉丝。本文最初发表 Hacker Noon 博客，经原作者 Richard Kenneth Eng 授权，InfoQ 中文站翻译并分享。