Python 对 JSON 中的特殊类型进行 Encoder

Python 处理 JSON 数据时, dumps 函数是经常用到的,当 JSON 数据中有特殊类型时,往往是比较头疼的,因为经常会报这样一个错误。

自定义编码类

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# Author: wxnacy(wxnacy@gmail.com)

import json
from datetime import datetime

USER_DATA = dict(
    id = 1, name = 'wxnacy', ts = datetime.now()
)
print(json.dumps(USER_DATA))
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/Users/wxnacy/PycharmProjects/study/python/office_module/json_demo/dumps.py", line 74, in <module>
    dumps_encoder()
  File "/Users/wxnacy/PycharmProjects/study/python/office_module/json_demo/dumps.py", line 68, in dumps_encoder
    print(json.dumps(USER_DATA))
  File "/Users/wxnacy/.pyenv/versions/3.6.0/Python.framework/Versions/3.6/lib/python3.6/json/__init__.py", line 231, in dumps
    return _default_encoder.encode(obj)
  File "/Users/wxnacy/.pyenv/versions/3.6.0/Python.framework/Versions/3.6/lib/python3.6/json/encoder.py", line 199, in encode
    chunks = self.iterencode(o, _one_shot=True)
  File "/Users/wxnacy/.pyenv/versions/3.6.0/Python.framework/Versions/3.6/lib/python3.6/json/encoder.py", line 257, in iterencode
    return _iterencode(o, 0)
  File "/Users/wxnacy/.pyenv/versions/3.6.0/Python.framework/Versions/3.6/lib/python3.6/json/encoder.py", line 180, in default
    o.__class__.__name__)
TypeError: Object of type 'datetime' is not JSON serializable

原因在于 dumps 函数不知道如何处理 datetime 对象,默认情况下 json 模块使用 json.JSONEncoder 类来进行编码,此时我们需要自定义一下编码类。

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# Author: wxnacy(wxnacy@gmail.com)

class CustomEncoder(json.JSONEncoder):
    def default(self, x):
        if isinstance(x, datetime):
            return int(x.timestamp())
        return super().default(self, x)

定义编码类 CustomEncoder 并重写实例的 default 函数,对特殊类型进行处理,其余类型继续使用父类的解析。

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# Author: wxnacy(wxnacy@gmail.com)

import json
from datetime import datetime

class CustomEncoder(json.JSONEncoder):
    def default(self, x):
        if isinstance(x, datetime):
            return int(x.timestamp())
        return super().default(self, x)

USER_DATA = dict(
    id = 1, name = 'wxnacy', ts = datetime.now()
)
print(json.dumps(USER_DATA, cls=CustomEncoder))
# {"id": 1, "name": "wxnacy", "ts": 1562938926}

最后整合起来,将类使用 cls 参数传入 dumps 函数即可。

使用 CustomEncoder 实例的 encode 函数可以对对象进行转码

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# Author: wxnacy(wxnacy@gmail.com)
print(CustomEncoder().encode(datetime.now()))
# 1562939035

在父类源码中,所有的编码逻辑都在 encode 函数中, default 只负责抛出 TypeError 异常,这就是文章开始报错的出处。

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# Author: wxnacy(wxnacy@gmail.com)

def default(self, o):
    """Implement this method in a subclass such that it returns
    a serializable object for ``o``, or calls the base implementation
    (to raise a ``TypeError``).

    For example, to support arbitrary iterators, you could
    implement default like this::

        def default(self, o):
            try:
                iterable = iter(o)
            except TypeError:
                pass
            else:
                return list(iterable)
            # Let the base class default method raise the TypeError
            return JSONEncoder.default(self, o)

    """
    raise TypeError(f'Object of type {o.__class__.__name__} '
                    f'is not JSON serializable')

def encode(self, o):
    """Return a JSON string representation of a Python data structure.

    >>> from json.encoder import JSONEncoder
    >>> JSONEncoder().encode({"foo": ["bar", "baz"]})
    '{"foo": ["bar", "baz"]}'

    """
    # This is for extremely simple cases and benchmarks.
    if isinstance(o, str):
        if self.ensure_ascii:
            return encode_basestring_ascii(o)
        else:
            return encode_basestring(o)
    # This doesn't pass the iterator directly to ''.join() because the
    # exceptions aren't as detailed.  The list call should be roughly
    # equivalent to the PySequence_Fast that ''.join() would do.
    chunks = self.iterencode(o, _one_shot=True)
    if not isinstance(chunks, (list, tuple)):
        chunks = list(chunks)
    return ''.join(chunks)

单分派装饰器处理对象

CustomEncoder 如果处理的对象种类很多的话,需要写多个 if elif else 来区分,这样并不是不行,但是不够优雅,不够 pythonic

根据对象的类型不同,而做出不同的处理。刚好有个装饰器可以做到这点,它就是单分派函数 functools.singledispatch

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
# Author: wxnacy(wxnacy@gmail.com)

from datetime import datetime
from datetime import date
from functools import singledispatch

class CustomEncoder(json.JSONEncoder):
    def default(self, x):
        try:
            return encode(x)
        except TypeError:
            return super().default(self, x)

@singledispatch             # 1
def encode(x):
    raise TypeError('Unencode type')

@encode.register(datetime)  # 2
def _(x):
    return int(x.timestamp())

@encode.register(date)
def _(x):
    return x.isoformat()

print(json.dumps(dict(dt = datetime.now(), d = date.today()), cls=CustomEncoder))
# {"dt": 1562940781, "d": "2019-07-12"}
  • 1 使用 @singledispatch 装饰 encode 函数,是他处理默认类型。同时给他添加一个装饰器构造函数变量。
  • 2 `@encode.register () 是一个装饰器构造函数,接收需要处理的对象类型作为参数。用它装饰的函数不需要名字, _` 代替即可。

最后提一点, json 也可以在命令行中使用

$ echo '{"json": "obj"}' | python -m json.tool
{
    "json": "obj"
}
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