单元测试常用技能(PHPUnit + Laravel)

1. 数据供给器

用来提供参数和结果,使用 @dataProvider 标注来指定使用哪个数据供给器方法。例如检测app升级数据是否符合预期,addProviderAppUpdateData()提供测试的参数和结果。testAppUpdateData()检测appUpdateData()返回的结果是否和给定的预期结果相等,即如果 $appId='apple_3.3.2_117' , $result=['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false] , 则$data中如果含有 ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false] , 则断言成功。 建议在数据提供器,逐个用字符串键名对其命名,这样在断言失败的时候将输出失败的名称,更容易定位问题

  • 示例代码:
<?php
    namespace Tests\Unit;

    use App\Services\ClientService;
    use Tests\TestCase;

    class ClientServiceTest extends TestCase
    {
        /**
         * @dataProvider addProviderAppUpdateData
         *
         * @param $appId
         * @param $result
         */
        public function testAppUpdateData($appId, $result)
        {
            $data = (new ClientService($appId))->appUpdateData();

            $this->assertTrue(count(array_intersect_assoc($data, $result)) == count($result));
        }

        public function addProviderAppUpdateData()
        {
            return [
                'null'                 => [null, ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false, 'latest_version' => 'V']],
                'error app id'         => ['sdas123123', ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false, 'latest_version' => 'V']],
                'android force update' => ['bx7_3.3.5_120', ['status' => 0, 'isIOS' => false]],
                'ios force update'     => ['apple_3.3.2_117', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => true]],
                'android soft update'  => ['sanxing_3.3.2_117', ['status' => 2, 'isIOS' => false]],
                'ios soft update'      => ['apple_3.3.3_118', ['status' => 2, 'isIOS' => true]],
                'android normal'       => ['fhqd_3.3.6_121', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => false]],
                'ios normal'           => ['apple_3.3.5_120', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => true]],
                'h5'                   => ['h5_3.3.3', ['status' => 1, 'isIOS' => false]]
            ];
        }
    }
  • 断言成功结果:

2. 断言方法

常用有assertTrue(), assertFalse(), assertNull(), assertEquals(), assertThat()。

assertThat()自定义断言。常用的约束有isNull()、isTrue()、isFalse()、isInstanceOf();常用的组合约束logicalOr()、logicalAnd() 。例如检测返回的结果是否是null或ApiApp类。

  • 示例代码:
<?php
    namespace Tests\Unit;

    use App\Models\ApiApp;
    use App\Services\SystemConfigService;
    use Tests\TestCase;

    class SystemConfigServiceTest extends TestCase
    {
        /**
         * @dataProvider additionProviderGetLatestUpdateAppApi
         *
         * @param $appType
         */
        public function testGetLatestUpdateAppApi($appType)
        {
            $result = SystemConfigService::getLatestUpdateAppApi($appType);
            $this->assertThat($result, $this->logicalOr($this->isNull(), $this->isInstanceOf(ApiApp::class)));
        }

        public function additionProviderGetLatestUpdateAppApi()
        {
            return [
                'apple'   => [1],
                'android' => [2],
                'null'    => [9999]
            ];
        }
    }
  • 断言成功结果:

3. 对异常进行测试

使用 expectExceptionCode() 对错误码进行检测,不建议对错误信息文案进行检测。例如检测设备被锁后是否抛出3026错误码。

  • 示例代码:
<?php
    namespace Tests\Unit;

    use App\Services\UserSecurityService;
    use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;
    use Tests\TestCase;

    class UserSecurityServiceTest extends TestCase
    {
        public static $userId = 4;

        /**
         * 设备锁检测
         * @throws \App\Exceptions\UserException
         */
        public function testDeviceCheckLock()
        {
            $this->expectExceptionCode(3026);
            Cache::put('device-login-error-account-', '1,2,3,4,5', 300);
            UserSecurityService::$request = null;
            UserSecurityService::$udid    = null;
            UserSecurityService::deviceCheck(self::$userId);
        }
    }
  • 断言成功结果:

4. 测试私有属性和私有方法使用反射机制

  • 如果只测试私有方法可使用 ReflectionMethod() 反射方法,使用 setAccessible(true) 设置方法可访问,并使用 invokeArgs()或invoke() 调用方法(invokeArgs将参数作为数组传递)。例如检测IP是否在白名单中。
  • 示例代码:

被检测代码:

namespace App\Facades\Services;

    /**
     * Class WebDefender
     */
    class WebDefenderService extends BaseService
    {
          //ip白名单
        private $ipWhiteList = [
            '10.*',  
            '172.18.*',  
            '127.0.0.1' 
        ];

        /**
         * ip是否在白名单中
         *
         * @param string $ip
         *
         * @return bool
         */
        private function checkIPWhiteList($ip)
        {
            if (!$this->ipWhiteList || !is_array($this->ipWhiteList)) {
                return false;
            }
            foreach ($this->ipWhiteList as $item) {
                if (preg_match("/{$item}/", $ip)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }

            return false;
        }
     }

检测方法:

<?php

    namespace Tests\Unit;

    use App\Facades\Services\WebDefenderService;
    use Tests\TestCase;

    class WebDefenderTest extends TestCase
    {
        /**
         * 测试IP白名单
         * @dataProvider additionProviderIp
         *
         * @param $ip
         * @param $result
         *
         * @throws \ReflectionException
         */
        public function testIPWhite($ip, $result)
        {
            $checkIPWhiteList = new \ReflectionMethod(WebDefenderService::class, 'checkIPWhiteList');
            $checkIPWhiteList->setAccessible(true);
            $this->assertEquals($result, $checkIPWhiteList->invokeArgs(new WebDefenderService(), [$ip]));
        }

        public function additionProviderIp()
        {
            return [
                '10 ip'  => ['10.1.1.7', true],
                '172 ip' => ['172.18.2.5', true],
                '127 ip' => ['127.0.0.1', true],
                '192 ip' => ['192.168.0.1', false]
            ];
        }
     }
  • 测试私有属性可使用 ReflectionClass() , 获取属性用 getProperty() , 设置属性的值用 setValue() , 获取方法用 getMethod() , 设置属性和方法可被访问使用 setAccessible(true) 。例如检测白名单路径。
  • 示例代码:

被检测代码:

<?php
    namespace App\Facades\Services;

    use App\Exceptions\ExceptionCode;
    use App\Exceptions\UserException;
    use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;

    /**
     * CC攻击防御器
     * Class WebDefender
     */
    class WebDefenderService extends BaseService
    {
        //路径白名单(正则)
        private $pathWhiteList = [
            //'^auth\/(.*)',
        ];

        private static $request = null;

         /**
         * 请求路径是否在白名单中
         *
         * @return bool
         */
        private function checkPathWhiteList()
        {
            $path = ltrim(self::$request->getPathInfo(), '/');
            if (!$path || !$this->pathWhiteList || !is_array($this->pathWhiteList)) {
                return false;
            }
            foreach ($this->pathWhiteList as $item) {
                if (preg_match("/$item/", $path)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }

            return false;
        }
    }

检测方法:

<?php
    namespace Tests\Unit;

    use App\Facades\Services\WebDefenderService;
    use Illuminate\Http\Request;
    use Tests\TestCase;

    class WebDefenderTest extends TestCase
    {
         /**
         * 检测白名单路径
         * @dataProvider additionProviderPathWhiteList
         *
         * @param $pathProperty
         * @param $request
         * @param $result
         *
         * @throws \ReflectionException
         */
        public function testCheckPathWhiteList($pathProperty, $request, $result)
        {
            $reflectedClass = new \ReflectionClass('App\Facades\Services\WebDefenderService');

            $webDefenderService     = new WebDefenderService();
            $reflectedPathWhiteList = $reflectedClass->getProperty('pathWhiteList');
            $reflectedPathWhiteList->setAccessible(true);
            $reflectedPathWhiteList->setValue($webDefenderService, $pathProperty);

            $reflectedRequest = $reflectedClass->getProperty('request');
            $reflectedRequest->setAccessible(true);
            $reflectedRequest->setValue($request);

            $reflectedMethod = $reflectedClass->getMethod('checkPathWhiteList');
            $reflectedMethod->setAccessible(true);
            $this->assertEquals($result, $reflectedMethod->invoke($webDefenderService));
        }

        public function additionProviderPathWhiteList()
        {
            $allPath            = ['.*'];
            $checkPath          = ['^auth\/(.*)'];
            $authSendSmsRequest = new Request([], [], [], [], [], ['HTTP_HOST' => 'api.dev.com', 'REQUEST_URI' => '/auth/sendSms']);
            $indexRequest       = new Request([], [], [], [], [], ['HTTP_HOST' => 'api.dev.com', 'REQUEST_URI' => '/']);
            $noMatchRequest     = new Request([], [], [], [], [], ['HTTP_HOST' => 'api.dev.com', 'REQUEST_URI' => '/product/sendSms']);

            return [
                'index'               => [[], $authSendSmsRequest, false],
                'no request'          => [$allPath, $indexRequest, false],
                'all request'         => [$allPath, $authSendSmsRequest, true],
                'check auth sms'      => [$checkPath, $authSendSmsRequest, true],
                'check path no match' => [$checkPath, $noMatchRequest, false]
            ];
        }
    }

5. 代码覆盖率

使用--coverage-html导出的报告含有类与特质覆盖率、 行覆盖率 、函数与方法覆盖率。可查看当前单元测试覆盖的范围。例如输出WebDefenderTest的代码覆盖率到桌面(phpunit tests/unit/WebDefenderTest --coverage-html ~/Desktop/test)

6. 指定代码覆盖率报告要包含哪些文件

在配置文件(phpunit.xml)里设置whitelist中的processUncoveredFilesFromWhitelist=true, 设置目录用<directory>标签,设置文件用<file>标签。例如指定app/Services目录下的所有文件和app/Facades/Services/WebDefenderService.php在报告中。

  • 示例代码:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <phpunit backupGlobals="false"
             backupStaticAttributes="false"
             bootstrap="tests/bootstrap.php"
             colors="true"
             convertErrorsToExceptions="true"
             convertNoticesToExceptions="true"
             convertWarningsToExceptions="true"
             processIsolation="false"
             stopOnFailure="false">
        <testsuites>
            <testsuite name="Unit">
                <directory suffix="Test.php">./tests/Unit</directory>
            </testsuite>

            <testsuite name="Feature">
                <directory suffix="Test.php">./tests/Feature</directory>
            </testsuite>
        </testsuites>
        <filter>
            <whitelist processUncoveredFilesFromWhitelist="true">
                <directory suffix=".php">./app/Services</directory>
                <file>./app/Facades/Services/WebDefenderService.php</file>
            </whitelist>
        </filter>
        <php>
            <server name="APP_ENV" value="local"/>
            <server name="BCRYPT_ROUNDS" value="4"/>
            <server name="CACHE_DRIVER" value="credis"/>
            <server name="MAIL_DRIVER" value="array"/>
            <server name="QUEUE_CONNECTION" value="sync"/>
            <server name="SESSION_DRIVER" value="array"/>
            <server name="APP_CONFIG_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/config.phpunit.php"/>
            <server name="APP_SERVICES_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/services.phpunit.php"/>
            <server name="APP_PACKAGES_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/packages.phpunit.php"/>
            <server name="APP_ROUTES_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/routes.phpunit.php"/>
            <server name="APP_EVENTS_CACHE" value="bootstrap/cache/events.phpunit.php"/>
        </php>
    </phpunit>

7. 参考文档

[PHPUnit官方文档 https://phpunit.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/latest/index.html](https://phpunit.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/latest/index.html)
[反射类 https://www.php.net/manual/en/class.reflectionclass.php](https://www.php.net/manual/en/class.reflectionclass.php)
[反射方法 https://www.php.net/manual/en/class.reflectionmethod.php](https://www.php.net/manual/en/class.reflectionmethod.php)
我来评几句
登录后评论

已发表评论数()

相关站点

热门文章