la .lojban.
Pronunciation [laʔˈloʒbanʔ]
Created by Logical Language Group
Date 1987
Setting and usage a logically engineered language for various usages
constructed languages
  • engineered languages
    • logical languages
      • Lojban
Latin and others
Sources Loglan
Language codes
ISO 639-2 jbo
ISO 639-3 jbo
Glottolog None
This article containsIPA phonetic symbols. Without properrendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead ofUnicode characters.

Lojban (pronounced [ˈloʒban]  ( listen ) ) is aconstructed, syntactically unambiguous human language based onpredicate logic, succeeding theLoglan project. The name " Lojban " is a compound formed from loj and ban , which are short forms of logji (logic) and bangu (language). The Logical Language Group (LLG) began developing Lojban in 1987. The LLG intended to realize Loglan's purposes as well as further complement the language by making it more usable, and freely available (as indicated by its official full English name "Lojban: A Realization of Loglan"). After a long initial period of debating and testing, the baseline was completed in 1997 with the publication of The Complete Lojban Language . In an interview in 2010 with the New York Times ,Arika Okrent, the author of In the Land of Invented Languages , stated: "The constructed language with the most complete grammar is probably Lojban – a language created to reflect the principles of logic." [ 1 ] Lojban was developed to be aworldlang, with the main sources of its basic vocabulary being the six most widely spoken languages as of 1987:Mandarin,English,Hindi,Spanish,Russian, andArabic, chosen to reduce the unfamiliarity or strangeness of the root words to people of diverse linguistic backgrounds. Lojban has also taken components from other constructed languages, notably the set of evidential indicators fromLáadan. [ 2 ]


  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Literature and vocabulary development
    • 1.2 Development of learning aids
    • 1.3 Community development
    • 1.4 Future goals
  • 2 Grammar
    • 2.1 Phonology and orthography
    • 2.2 Morphology
    • 2.3 Syntax and semantics
  • 3 Samples
    • 3.1 Common phrases
    • 3.2 Some unique Lojbanic expressions
    • 3.3 The North Wind and the Sun
    • 3.4 Tongue twisters
    • 3.5 A Lojbanic poem (audio)
  • 4 Community
    • 4.1 The Internet
    • 4.2 The Logfest
    • 4.3 Population
  • 5 Comparison with other logical languages
    • 5.1 Loglan
    • 5.2 Lojsk
    • 5.3 Voksigid
    • 5.4 gua\spi
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

History [ edit ]

Lojban has a predecessor,Loglan, a language invented byJames Cooke Brown in 1955 and developed byThe Loglan Institute. Loglan was originally conceived as a means to examine the influence of language on the speaker's thought (an assumption known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ).

As Brown started to claim hiscopyright [ 3 ] [ 4 ] on the language's components, restraint was laid on the community's activity. In order to circumvent such control, a group of people decided to initiate a separate project, departing from the lexical basis of Loglan and reinventing the whole vocabulary, which led to the current lexicon of Lojban. In effect they established in 1987 The Logical Language Group, based inWashington DC. They also won a trial over whether they could call their version of the language "Loglan". [ 5 ]

Following the publication of The Complete Lojban Language , it was expected that "the documented lexicon would be baselined, and the combination of lexicon and reference grammar would be frozen for a minimum of 5 years while language usage grew." [ 6 ] As scheduled, this period, which has officially been called the "freeze", expired in 2002. The speakers of Lojban are now free to construct new words and idioms, and decide where the language is heading.

Lojban still shares many of the characteristics of Loglan:

  • It has a grammar that is based onpredicate logic, designed to express complex logical constructs precisely.
  • It has no irregularities or ambiguities in spelling and grammar (although word derivation relies on arbitrary variant forms). This gives rise to high intelligibility forcomputer parsing.
  • It is designed to be as culturally neutral as possible.
  • It allows highlysystematic learning and use, compared to most natural languages.
  • It possesses an intricate system of indicators which effectively communicate contextualattitude oremotions.
  • It does not havesimplicity as a design criterion.

Literature and vocabulary development [ edit ]

Lojban can be an intellectual device forcreative writing and is deemed to have many potential aspects yet to be discovered or explored.

[ citation needed ]

Dan Parmenter:The removal of grammatical ambiguity from modification [...] seems to heighten creative exploration of word combination. [...] Other areas of possible benefit are (surprisingly in a 'logical' language) emotional expression. Lojban has a fully developed set of metalinguistic and emotional attitude indicators that supplant much of the baggage of aspect and mood found in natural languages, but most clearly separate indicative statements from the emotional communication associated with those statements. This might lead to freer expression and consideration of ideas, since stating an idea can be distinguished from supporting that idea. The set of possible indicators is also large enough to provide specificity and clarity of emotions that is difficult in natural languages.

John Cowan:

There is a marker for "figurative speech" which would be used on "back stabber" and would signal "There is a culturally dependent construction here!" The intent is not that everything is instantly and perfectly comprehensible to someone who knows only the root words, but rather that non-root words are built up creatively from the roots. Thus "heart pain" would refer to the literal heart and literal pain; what would be ambiguous would be the exact connection between these two. Is the pain in the heart, because of the heart, or what? But "heart pain" would not be a valid tanru for "emotional pain", absent the figurative speech marker.

Computer Network Discussions on Loglan/Lojban and Linguistics: Lojban as seen by the linguistics and cognitive science community 20, 23

The language was built to attempt to remove some limits on human thought; these limits are not understood, so that the tendency is to try to remove restrictions whenever we find the language structure gets in our way. You definitely can talk nonsense in Lojban.

Bob LeChevalier:

In Lojban, a little grammar makes for a lot of semantic fun, since the grammar doesn't interfere with the semantic quibble you love. [...] In addition to its grammar, Lojban is definitely a priori in its words[...] We presume that everything can be covered as compounds of the classification scheme implied by the gismu [root words]

. [...] We haven't, though, tried to impose a system on the universe like most a priori languages have. Instead, we have tried to broaden


flexibility so that multiple approaches to classifying the universe are possible. Our rule is that any word have one meaning, not that any meaning have one word. There is no 'proper' classification scheme in Lojban. [...] Lojban offers a new world of thought.

Why Lojban?

Like most languages with few speakers, Lojban lacks much of an associated body ofliterature and its creative extensions have not been fully realized (the true potential of its attitudinal system, for example, is considered unlikely to be drawn out "until and unless we have children raised entirely in a multi-cultural Lojban-speaking environment" [ 7 ] ). Also such collective or encyclopedic sources of knowledge like theLojban Wikipedia, which may help expand the language's lexical horizon, are not very well developed.

Presently accessible Lojbanic writings are principally concentrated on the Lojban.org, though there exist independent Lojbanic blog/journal sites as well. The Lojban IRC (or its archive) has a gathering of Lojbanic expressions too, but its grammatical correctness is not always guaranteed. These available materials on the internet include both original works and translations of classic pieces in the field of natural languages, ranging frompoetry,short story,novel, andacademic writing. This has been paralleled with achrestomathy project aiming to produce a collection of translated writings in order to show wide samplings of various language, hopefully longer than 10,000 words and with a variety of genres and styles [ 8 ] ( see also – External link: Literature ). Examples of works that are already available include:

  • Alice in Wonderland by the English authorLewis Carroll
  • One Thousand and One Nights
  • The Moon is a Harsh Mistress (Chapter 1) by the science fiction writerRobert A. Heinlein
  • The Prophet by the Lebanese-American writerKahlil Gibran
  • The Little Things by the short story writer/poetRaymond Carver
  • The Man and the Snake by the short story writer/satiristAmbrose Bierce
  • The Book by the cosmic horror writerH. P. Lovecraft
  • TheBook of Esther from theBible

Othertranslation projects include:

  • Eaton Interface: a translation of the Helen Eaton concept list into Lojban.
  • Parliamentary Rules: Lojban terms for parliamentary actions .
  • Lojban Adventure: a Lojban version of the classicColossal Cave text adventure game.

Compound words ( lujvo ) and borrowed words ( fu'ivla ) are continually increasing as the speakers find demands. The number of root words ( gismu ) and structure words ( cmavo ) are basically unchanging, but new inventions are to be accepted as experimental components. In fact, it has been noticed that particular inclination or disproportion exists in the available vocabulary. Cortesi [ 9 ] has pointed out the lack of certain terms for mathematics and geometry (although this demand may now be disputed as the current set of Lojban vocabulary does actually allow speakers to express such notions as steradian ( stero ), trigonometric tangent ( tanjo ), multiplicative inverse ( fa'i ), matrix transpose ( re'a ) among a number of other kinds of operators or metric units). Other instances which require speakers to construct noncanonical words:

  • There are few (almost non-existent) entries of African country names on the official list of root words while other country names (especially those with large populations of speakers of the six source languages) are covered to a remarkable extent.
  • Such distinction as between palne (tray) and palta (plate) exist while no distinction between "illustration" and "photography" is made by the available set of gismu (that is, no exclusive root word for "photography" exists except the generic pixra (picture) ( see also – Grammar: Morphology: brivla : gismu ).

Development of learning aids [ edit ]

Apart from the actual practice of the language, some members of the community and LLG have been endeavoring to create various aids for the learners. The Complete Lojban Language ( CLL , also known as The Red Book , due to its colour, and The Codex Woldemar , after its author), the definitive word on all aspects of Lojban, is one of them, finalized in 1997. Some of the projects in varying stages of completeness are:

  • Phrasebook: Lojbanic Phrasebook Project, CVS/Wiki Lojban Phrasebook, Pocket Dictionary
  • Parser: Lojban Parser/Machine Grammar (by Robin Lee Powell), jbofi'e (by Richard Curnow), valfendi (by Pierre Abbat)
  • Database: jbovlaste (by Robin Lee Powell), Reference Database (by Matt Arnold on DabbleDB)
  • Others: Lojban/Logic book and webpage (by John Clifford), TLI Loglan Interface (by Steven Belknap and Bob LeChevalier)
( see also – External link: Learning Courses/Resources )

Community development [ edit ]

Currently, Lojban's learning resources available on the internet are available mainly to speakers of English, French, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Esperanto, to varying degrees. [ 10 ] [ 11 ]

Disproportion in the community population is still noticeable. It is reasonably hoped among Lojbanists that more people from different cultural/linguistic backgrounds join the community in order to maintain and further complement the intended neutrality of the language. ( see also – Community )

Future goals [ edit ]

While the initial aim of the Loglan project was to investigate the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis , the active Lojban community recognizes additional goals for the language to be attained in the future, including but not limited to:

Note that these goals are not crucial to the Lojban community, most of whom simply want to enjoy communicating with each other in Lojban.

[ citation needed ]

Grammar [ edit ]

Main article:Lojban grammar

Phonology and orthography [ edit ]

Lojban has 6vowels and 17consonants. Some of them have, apart from the preferred/standard sounds, permitted variants intended to cover dissimilitude in pronunciation by speakers of different linguistic backgrounds.

Stress normally falls on the penultimate syllable.

There are 16diphthongs (and notriphthongs). A distinction between diphthongs and monophthongs can be written by inserting a comma in the Latin alphabet. Vowel hiatus is also prevented by inserting an apostrophe, which usually indicates [h] , though there are other valid realizations. For those who have trouble pronouncing certainconsonant clusters, there is the option of adding vowels between them (epenthesis), as long as they differ sufficiently from the phonological vowels and are pronounced as short as possible. The resulting additional syllables are not factored in the grammar, including for the purposes of stress determination.

Lojban is written almost entirely with lower-case letters; upper-case letters are used to mark stress in words that do not fit the normal rules of stress assignment, or when whitespace is omitted.

The letters in Lojban and their respective pronunciations are shown in the table below. TheIPA symbols in parentheses indicate alternative pronunciations; preferred pronunciations have no parentheses.

Consonants Auxiliary characters
IPA representation [b] [ʃ]
( [ʂ] )
[d] [f]
( [ɸ] )
[ɡ] [ʒ]
( [ʐ] )
[k] [l] [ 1 ] [m] [ 1 ] [n] [ 1 ] [p] [r] [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [s] [t] [v]
( [β] )
[x] [z] [h]
( [θ] )
[ʔ] .
Latin b c d f g j k l m n p r s t v x z ' . ,
IPA representation [a]
( [ɑ] )
( [e] )
[i] [o]
( [ɔ] )
[u] [ə]
Latin a e i o u y
  1. ^ a b c d Sonorants /m n l r/ may besyllabic.
  2. ^ There is no preferred sound for /r/ ; anyrhotic sound is equally acceptable.

In principle, Lojban may be written in any orthographic system as long as it satisfies the required regularities and unambiguities. Some of the reasons for such elasticity would be as follows:

  1. Lojban is defined by thephonemes rather than graphemes; as long as they are correctly rendered so as to maintain the Lojbanic audio-visualisomorphism, a representational system can be said to be an appropriate orthography of the language;
  2. Lojban is meant to be as culturally neutral as possible, so it is never crucial or fundamental to claim that some particular orthography of some particular languages (e.g. the Latin alphabet) should be the dominant mode.

Some Lojbanists extend this principle to claim that even an original orthography of the language is to be sought. [ 12 ]

This article uses the common Latin alphabet mode.

Morphology [ edit ]

Lojban has threeword-classes: predicate words ( brivla ), structure words ( cmavo ), and name words ( cmevla ). Each of them has uniquely identifying properties, so that one can unambiguously recognize which word is of which part of speech in a string of the language. They may be further divided in sub-classes. There also exists a special fragmental form assigned to some predicate words and structure words, from which compound words ( lujvo ) may be created. [ 13 ] [ 14 ]

Syntax and semantics [ edit ]

The language's grammatical structures are "defined by a set of rules that have been tested to be unambiguous using computers", which is in effect called the "machine grammar". [ 15 ] Hence the characteristics of the standard syntactic (not semantic) constructs in Lojban:

  • each word has exactly one grammatical interpretation;
  • the words relate grammatically to each other in exactly one way.

Such standards, however, are to be attained with certain carefulness:

It is important to note that new Lojbanists will not be able to speak 'perfectly' when first learning Lojban. In fact, you may never speak perfectly in 'natural' Lojban conversation, even though you achieve fluency in the language. No English speaker always speaks textbook English in natural conversation; Lojban speakers will also make grammatical errors when talking quickly. Lojbanists will, however, be able to speak or write unambiguously if they are careful, which is difficult if not impossible with a natural language.

Nick Nicholas and John Cowan. ' What Is Lojban? II.3

The computer-tested, unambiguous rules also include grammar for 'incomplete' sentences e.g. for narrative, quotational, or mathematical phrases.

Lojbanic expressions are modular; smaller constructs of words are assembled into larger phrases so that all incorporating pieces manifest as a possible grammatical unity. This mechanism allows for simple yet infinitely powerful phrasings; "a more complex phrase can be placed inside a simple structure, which in turn can be used in another instance of the complex phrase structure".

Itstypology can be said to be basicallysubject–verb–object andsubject–object–verb. However, it can practically be anything:

  • mi prami do (SVO) (I love you)
  • mi do prami (SOV) (By me, you are loved)
  • do se prami mi (OVS) (You are loved by me)
  • do mi se prami (OSV) (You, I love)
  • prami fa mi do (VSO) (Loved by me, you are)
  • prami do fa mi (VOS) (Love you, I do)

Such flexibility has to do with the language's intended capability to translate as many expressions of natural languages as possible, based on a unique positional case system. The meaning of the sentence {mi prami do} is determined by {prami} realizing, with its own predefined "place structure", a specific semantic relation between {mi} and {do}; when the positional relation between {mi} and {do} changes, the meaning of the sentence changes too. As shown above, Lojban has particular devices to preserve such semantic structure of words while altering their order.

As befits a logical language, there is a large assortment of logical connectives. Such conjunction words take different forms depending on what they connect, another reason why the (standard) Lojbanic expressions are typically precise and clear.

Multiple predicate words may be linked up together so as to narrow the semantic scope of the phrase. In skami pilno "computer user(s)", the modifying word skami narrows the sense of the modified word pilno to form a more specific concept (in which case the modifier may resemble English adverbs or adjectives).

  • English: Several small fires were burning in the house .
  • Lojban: so'i cmalu fagri puca'o jelca ne'i le zdani
  • Gloss: many small fire past-continuing burn inside the house (Translation after English)

One could go still further, adding a quite extreme example of its syntactic flexibility.

Lojban can easily "imitate" even Amerindian one-word sentences like this one:

  • Nuu-chah-nulth language : inikwihl'minik'isit
  • Lojban: zdane'ikemcmafagyso'ikemprununjelca (so-called lujvo or compound word mainly using the underlying rafsi or roots according to strict compositional rules)
  • Gloss: (about) house-inside type-of small fire multitude type-of past event type of burning

The Nuu-chah-nulth one-word sentence breaks down a bit differently as:

inkiw (fire/burn) -ihl (in-the-house) -'minik (plural) -'is (diminutive) -'it (past-tense)

which can be expressed in Lojban the same way:

  • Lojban: fagykemyzdanerso'icmapru
  • Gloss: fire-type-house-inside-many-small-past-event

Samples [ edit ]

Common phrases [ edit ]

Lojban literal meaning English
coi / co'o   coi/co'o   ( help · info ) [hello!]/[goodbye!] hello/good-bye
pe'u   pe'u   ( help · info ) [please!] please
ki'e   ki'e   ( help · info ) [thanks!] thank you
.u'u   u'u   ( help · info ) [repentance!] I'm sorry
xu do se glibau / jbobau   xu do se glibau/jbobau   ( help · info ) [is it true?] you is-a-speaker-of-English/Lojban-language Do you speak English/Lojban?
ti / ta / tu   ti/ta/tu   ( help · info ) this-here/that-here/that-over-there this one/that one/that yonder
mi na jimpe   mi na jimpe   ( help · info ) I [not-true] understand I don't understand
go'i   go'i   ( help · info ) the-last-sentence yes/That's true
na go'i   na go'i   ( help · info ) [not-true] the-last-sentence no/That's false
la'u ma   la'u ma   ( help · info ) being-a-quantity-of what How much/many?
ma jdima   ma jdima   ( help · info ) what is-the-price What's the cost?
lo vimku'a ma zvati toilet what is-present-at Where's the toilet?

Some unique Lojbanic expressions [ edit ]

  • .oiro'o bu'onai pei
    [physical pain!] [end emotion] [?]
    Are you no longer in pain?
  • mi nelci ko
    I is-fond-of you-[imperative]
    Make me be fond of you!
  • le cukta be'u ma zvati
    that-which-is-described-as book [need!] is-at what
    I need the book! Where is it?
  • ko ga'inai nenri klama le mi zdani
    you-[imperative] [me-the-social-inferior!] inside-type-of come that-which-is-described-as having-to-do-with-me house
    I would be honored if you would enter my residence.
  • le nanmu cu ninmu
    one-or-more-specific-things-that-I-describe-as "men" are women
    The man/men is a/are woman/women.
  • seri'agi mi jgari lei djacu gi mi jgari le kabri
    With-physical-effect I grasp the-mass-of water, I grasp the cup.
    I grasp water, since I grasp the cup.

The North Wind and the Sun [ edit ]

A translation by Nick Nicholas of The North Wind and the Sun , used in comparativeIPA realizations. [ 16 ]

la .berbif. joi la .sol.
la .berbif. joi la .sol. puki darlu lejei ri jikau ra vlimau le drata kei

co'i lenu lo litru vi klama gi'e tagji dasni lo kamgla kosta .i lego'i cu tugni lenu le pamoi snada be lenu naldasri'a le litru le kosta du'o ru'a vlimau le drata .ibazibo la .berbif. cu rocrai brife .iku'i go ri vlimau brife gi le litru cu tagmau vaungau le kosta ra .ibaze'e la .berbif. .uu cu sisti lenu troci .ibabo la .sol. cu glare dirce .ibazibo le litru co'u dasni le kosta .iseki'ubo la .berbif. cu bilga lenu tugni ledu'u la .sol. vlimau

Tongue twisters [ edit ]

  • lo'u lu le la li'u le'u
  • le crisa srasu cu rirci crino
  • tisna fa la tsani le cnita tsina lo tinci tinsa
  • la .bab. cu zbasu loi bakyzbabu loi bakygrasu
  • mi na djuno lo du'u klama fa makau la .makaus. makau makau makau
  • le jbijbejbo cu cpucpacpe le jbajbu le cpicpare
  • la .santas. cu santa'a santa

A Lojbanic poem (audio) [ edit ]

Community [ edit ]

The Internet [ edit ]

The activities of Lojban speakers are mostly via theInternet:

  • Lojban.org : A user-maintained site, attempting to reflect a cross section of the Lojban community outside of the LLG.
  • mw.lojban.org : An alternative multilingual wiki with some new materials.
  • Lojban IRC chat : Based on the FreenodeIRC network. One may use IRC clients (irc.freenode.net #lojban) as an alternative to the web interface.
  • Lojban Mailing List : A beginner-oriented means to talk/learn about the language.
  • jbovlaste : An official, dictionary editing interface created by Jay Kominek, updated by Robin Lee Powell. People can post new Lojbanic words with definitions and examples, or vote for such experimental words.
  • Lojban subreddit : the main Lojban group in Reddit
  • jbotcan.org : A community in which people may practice their Lojban, ask questions, propose Lojban-related ideas, etc.
  • uikipedias: The Lojban Wikipedia, where discussions may be conversed in English.

The Logfest [ edit ]

Gatherings of Lojbanists have been organized in USA annually since as early as 1990, called Logfest. It is mostly informal, taking place on a weekend, with the only scheduled activity being the annual meeting of the LLG. Those who cannot be present may still be involved via IRC. Activities may be whatever the attendees want to do: Lojban conversation, lessons, technical discussions, or socializing.

Population [ edit ]

The total number of Lojban speakers is unknown.

According to mw.lojban.org, [ 17 ] places known to have concentration of Lojbanists are:

  • Canada, Sweden, Russia, United States

As of August 2007, Frappr.com shows [ 18 ] that some people from the following countries are interested in or enthusiasts of the language:

  • Argentina, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela.

Below are some of the notable personalities who have contributed to the development of Lojban:

  • Bob LeChevalier (aka lojbab ): the founder and the President of the LLG. [ 19 ]
  • Robin Lee Powell (aka camgusmis ): the Secretary/Treasurer of the LLG, webmaster of Lojban.org. He provides the machine and bandwidth from which the site is served. He has also written several Lojbanic materials including a novel-sized story, la nicte cadzu ( Night Walkers ).
  • Jorge Llambías (aka xorxes ): one of the most active Lojbanists, having done several translations. He is also a prominent figure on the mailing list, helping beginners with the language.
  • John Cowan (aka jcowan ): the author of The Complete Lojban Language .
  • Miles Forster (aka la selpa'i ): a German Lojbanist who wrote the song ca pa djedi [ 20 ] and made several large translations into Lojban.
  • Robin Turner: a British philosopher and linguist living in Turkey. He is the coauthor of Lojban For Beginners .
  • Nick Nicholas (aka nitcion ): an Australian linguist. He is the first fluent Lojban speaker (although he insists that he was the second; he is known to be excessively modest). He has done Lojbanic writing, including Lojban For Beginners coauthored by Robin Turner.
  • Matt Arnold (aka epkat ): has been contributing to thetranslation project and software development.

Comparison with other logical languages [ edit ]

Loglan [ edit ]

James Cooke Brown called his language Loglan , and The Loglan Institute (TLI), the organization that he established, continues to call its language Loglan. Loglan is now also a generic term that refers both to Dr. Brown's Loglan , and all languages descended from it. Therefore, it is necessary to state that this section refers specifically to the TLI language, instead of the entire family of languages.

The principal difference between Lojban and Loglan is one of lexicon. A Washington DC splinter group, which later formed The Logical Language Group, LLG, decided in 1986 to remake the entire vocabulary of Loglan in order to evade Dr. Brown's claim of copyright to the language. After a lengthy battle in court, his claim to copyright was ruled invalid. But by then, the new vocabulary was already cemented as a part of the new language, which was called Lojban: A realization of Loglan by its supporters.

The closed set of five-letter words was the first part of the vocabulary to be remade. The words for Lojban were made by the same principles as those for Loglan; that is, candidate forms were chosen according to how many sounds they had in common with their equivalent in some of the most commonly spoken languages on Earth, which was then multiplied by the number of speakers of the languages with which the words had letters in common. The difference with the Lojban remake of the root words was that the weighting was updated to reflect the actual numbers of speakers for the languages. This resulted in word forms that had fewer sounds taken from English, and more sounds taken from Chinese. For instance, the Loglan word norma is equivalent to the Lojban word cnano (cf.Chinese 常,pinyin cháng ), both meaning "normal".

Grammatical words were gradually added to Lojban as the grammatical description of the language was made.

Loglan and Lojban still have essentially the same grammars, and most of what is said in theGrammarsection above holds true for Loglan as well. Most simple, declarative sentences could be translated word by word between the two languages; but the grammars differ in the details, and in their formal foundations. The grammar of Lojban is defined mostly in the language definition formalism Parsing Expression Grammar andYACC, with a few formal "pre-processing" rules. Loglan also has a machine grammar, but it is not definitive; it is based on a relatively small corpus of sentences that has remained unchanged through the decades, which takes precedence in case of a discrepancy.

There are also many differences in the terminology used in English to talk about the two languages. In his writings, Brown used many terms based on English, Latin and Greek, some of which were already established with a slightly different meaning. On the other hand, the Lojban camp freely borrowed grammatical terms from Lojban itself. For example, what linguists call roots or root words , Loglanists call primitives or prims , and Lojbanists call gismu . The lexeme of Loglan and selma'o of Lojban have nothing to do with thelinguistic meaning of lexeme . It is a kind ofpart of speech, a subdivision of the set of grammatical words, or particles, which loglanists call little words and lojbanists cmavo . Loglan and Lojban have a grammatical construct called metaphor and tanru , respectively; this is not really ametaphor, but a kind of modifier-modificand relationship, similar to that of anoun adjunct and noun. A borrowed word in Loglan is simply called a borrowing ; but in English discussions of Lojban, the Lojban word fu'ivla is used. This is probably because in Lojban, unlike Loglan, a certain set of CV templates is reserved for borrowed words.

In the new phonology for Lojban, the consonant q and the vowel w were removed, and the consonant h was replaced by x . The consonant ' (apostrophe) was added with the value of [h] in the International Phonetic Alphabet , but its distribution is such that it can appear only intervocally, and in discussions of the morphology and phonotactics, it is described not as a proper consonant, but a "voiceless glide". (This phoneme is realized as [θ] by some speakers.) A rigidphonotactical system was made for Lojban, but Loglan does not seem to have had such a system.

Lojsk [ edit ]

Lojsk was conceived by Ari Reyes, heavily influenced by Loglan, Lojban, Universal Networking Language (UNL),Esperanto,Visual Basic,Dutton's Speedwords,Ceqli and Gua\spi .

[ citation needed ]

It is designed to be more single-syllable oriented. If possible, that would nonetheless lead Lojsk to be more sensitive to noisy environments than Lojban is;

[ according to whom? ]

therefore its practicality in oral communication may be questioned. [1]

Voksigid [ edit ]

Voksigid , [ 21 ] created by an Internet working group led by Bruce R. Gilson, attempts to construct a predicate language of a different type from those which had gone before. Its syntax was somewhat influenced by Japanese, and its vocabulary was based mostly on European language roots. Loglan and Lojban both use word order to mark the various places in the predication, but because remembering which position means which role in the predication might be beyond easy memorization for most people, Voksigid was designed in order to overcome this issue. It uses an extensive set of very semantically specific prepositions to mark the roles of verb arguments, instead of positional order as in Loglan and Lojban.

gua\spi [ edit ]

gua\spi is a descendent of Loglan but istonal, developed by Jim Carter. Instead of structure words there are in Gua\spi six different tones. Predicates have only one syllable instead of two. Some of its characteristics, including tones, phonotactics, expressions for masses vs sets, non-existence of metalinguistic negation, etc., received criticism. [ 22 ]

See also [ edit ]