Spring 源码学习 - 单例bean的实例化过程

本文作者:geek,一个聪明好学的同事

1. 简介

开发中我们常用@Commpont,@Service,@Resource等注解或者配置xml去声明一个类,使其成为spring容器中的bean,以下我将用从源码角度看以AnnotationConfigApplicationContext为例看spring如何把带有注解的类生成spring中bean。

2. 示例代码

public class TestContext {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		AnnotationConfigApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(AppConfig.class);
		SingleBean singleBean = context.getBean(SingleBean.class);
		System.out.println("<=====>"+singleBean.getTestStr());
	}
}
@ComponentScan("com.geek")
public class AppConfig {
}
@Component
public class SingleBean {
	private String testStr = "testStr";

	public String getTestStr() {
		return testStr;
	}
}

注意:以上代码仅需要引入spring-context依赖即可。

3. 源码分析

​ 上面的demo在调用AnnotationConfigApplicationContext构造函数的时候,AppConfig类会被注册到AnnotatedBeanDefinitionReader,由这个reader把AppConfig解释为beanDefination,从而被spring获取到要实例化的类信息,以下为bean生产的源码及其注释。(源码基于springFramework 5.1.X)

3.1 创建入口

​ 单例bean的创建的入口为DefaultListableBeanFactory.java#preInstantiateSingletons,下面源码可见创建的bean条件为非抽象,非@LazyInit注解,Scope为singleTon(默认为singleTon)。

@Override
	public void preInstantiateSingletons() throws BeansException {
		if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
			logger.trace("Pre-instantiating singletons in " + this);
		}
		// Iterate over a copy to allow for init methods which in turn register new bean definitions.
		// While this may not be part of the regular factory bootstrap, it does otherwise work fine.
		//所有可能需要去实例化的class(lazy,scope)
		List<String> beanNames = new ArrayList<>(this.beanDefinitionNames);

		// Trigger initialization of all non-lazy singleton beans...
		for (String beanName : beanNames) {
			RootBeanDefinition bd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
			/**
			 * 非抽象,非懒初始化,单例bean
			 */
			if (!bd.isAbstract() && bd.isSingleton() && !bd.isLazyInit()) {
				if (isFactoryBean(beanName)) {
					Object bean = getBean(FACTORY_BEAN_PREFIX + beanName);
					if (bean instanceof FactoryBean) {
						final FactoryBean<?> factory = (FactoryBean<?>) bean;
						boolean isEagerInit;
						if (System.getSecurityManager() != null && factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean) {
							isEagerInit = AccessController.doPrivileged((PrivilegedAction<Boolean>)
											((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory)::isEagerInit,
									getAccessControlContext());
						}
						else {
							isEagerInit = (factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean &&
									((SmartFactoryBean<?>) factory).isEagerInit());
						}
						if (isEagerInit) {
							getBean(beanName);
						}
					}
				}
				//非工厂bean实例化
				else {
					getBean(beanName);
				}
			}
		}
		/**
		 * 实例化完成后触发实现了SmartInitializingSingleton方法的bean
		 * 的afterSingletonsInstantiated方法
 		 */
		// Trigger post-initialization callback for all applicable beans...
		for (String beanName : beanNames) {
			Object singletonInstance = getSingleton(beanName);
			if (singletonInstance instanceof SmartInitializingSingleton) {
				final SmartInitializingSingleton smartSingleton = (SmartInitializingSingleton) singletonInstance;
				if (System.getSecurityManager() != null) {
					AccessController.doPrivileged((PrivilegedAction<Object>) () -> {
						smartSingleton.afterSingletonsInstantiated();
						return null;
					}, getAccessControlContext());
				}
				else {
					smartSingleton.afterSingletonsInstantiated();
				}
			}
		}
	}

3.2 创建前doGetBean代码逻辑

getBean方法进来后便是直接调用doGetBean,doGetBean执行的源码解释如下:
protected <T> T doGetBean(final String name, @Nullable final Class<T> requiredType,
			@Nullable final Object[] args, boolean typeCheckOnly) throws BeansException {
		/**
		 * 获取beanName
		 * 1,去掉factortoryBean前缀&
		 * 2,带有别名的bean转换为原来名字
		 */
		final String beanName = transformedBeanName(name);
		Object bean;
		// Eagerly check singleton cache for manually registered singletons.
		/**
		 * 从DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry的singletonObjects
		 * (spring内部用来缓存单例bean的currentHashMap)检查是否存在该bean,不存在则创建
		 * 涉及单例模式下的循环依赖解决
		 */
		Object sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName);
		if (sharedInstance != null && args == null) {
			if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
				if (isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
					logger.trace("Returning eagerly cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName +
							"' that is not fully initialized yet - a consequence of a circular reference");
				}
				else {
					logger.trace("Returning cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName + "'");
				}
			}
			/**
			 *获取给定bean实例的对象,如果是Factory Bean,
			 * 则可以是bean实例本身或其创建的对象。
			 */
			bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, null);
		}
		else {
			// Fail if we're already creating this bean instance:
			// We're assembly within a circular reference.
			/**
			 * 原型模式下的bean存在循环依赖则会抛异常
			 */
			if (isPrototypeCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
				throw new BeanCurrentlyInCreationException(beanName);
			}
			// Check if bean definition exists in this factory.
			/**
			 * 找不到则从父容器中查找
			 */
			BeanFactory parentBeanFactory = getParentBeanFactory();
			if (parentBeanFactory != null && !containsBeanDefinition(beanName)) {
				// Not found -> check parent.
				String nameToLookup = originalBeanName(name);
				if (parentBeanFactory instanceof AbstractBeanFactory) {
					return ((AbstractBeanFactory) parentBeanFactory).doGetBean(
							nameToLookup, requiredType, args, typeCheckOnly);
				}
				else if (args != null) {
					// Delegation to parent with explicit args.
					return (T) parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, args);
				}
				else if (requiredType != null) {
					// No args -> delegate to standard getBean method.
					return parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, requiredType);
				}
				else {
					return (T) parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup);
				}
			}
			if (!typeCheckOnly) {
				markBeanAsCreated(beanName);
			}
			try {
				/**
				 * 父容器中也找不到该bean,则需要重新实例化
				 * 1,获取要实例化bean的beanDefinition,
				 * 2,检查bean的实例化需要依赖的其他bean
				 */
				final RootBeanDefinition mbd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
				checkMergedBeanDefinition(mbd, beanName, args);

				// Guarantee initialization of beans that the current bean depends on.
				String[] dependsOn = mbd.getDependsOn();
				if (dependsOn != null) {
					for (String dep : dependsOn) {
						/**
						 * 若给定的依赖 bean 已经注册为依赖给定的bean
						 */
						if (isDependent(beanName, dep)) {
							throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
									"Circular depends-on relationship between '" + beanName + "' and '" + dep + "'");
						}
						registerDependentBean(dep, beanName);
						try {
							/**
							 * 递归调用getBean,优先创建依赖的bean
							 */
							getBean(dep);
						}
						catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
							throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
									"'" + beanName + "' depends on missing bean '" + dep + "'", ex);
						}
					}
				}
				// Create bean instance.
				if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
					/**
					 * 通过调用DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry的getSingleton,从而调用核心方法createBean创建
					 */
					sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName, () -> {
						try {
							return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
						}
						catch (BeansException ex) {
							// Explicitly remove instance from singleton cache: It might have been put there
							// eagerly by the creation process, to allow for circular reference resolution.
							// Also remove any beans that received a temporary reference to the bean.
							destroySingleton(beanName);
							throw ex;
						}
					});
					bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
				}

				else if (mbd.isPrototype()) {
					// It's a prototype -> create a new instance.
					Object prototypeInstance = null;
					try {
						beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
						prototypeInstance = createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
					}
					finally {
						afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
					}
					bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(prototypeInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
				}

				else {
					String scopeName = mbd.getScope();
					final Scope scope = this.scopes.get(scopeName);
					if (scope == null) {
						throw new IllegalStateException("No Scope registered for scope name '" + scopeName + "'");
					}
					try {
						Object scopedInstance = scope.get(beanName, () -> {
							beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
							try {
								return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
							}
							finally {
								afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
							}
						});
						bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(scopedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
					}
					catch (IllegalStateException ex) {
						throw new BeanCreationException(beanName,
								"Scope '" + scopeName + "' is not active for the current thread; consider " +
								"defining a scoped proxy for this bean if you intend to refer to it from a singleton",
								ex);
					}
				}
			}
			catch (BeansException ex) {
				cleanupAfterBeanCreationFailure(beanName);
				throw ex;
			}
		}
		/**
		 * 检查需要的bean类型是否符合
		 */
		// Check if required type matches the type of the actual bean instance.
		if (requiredType != null && !requiredType.isInstance(bean)) {
			try {
				T convertedBean = getTypeConverter().convertIfNecessary(bean, requiredType);
				if (convertedBean == null) {
					throw new BeanNotOfRequiredTypeException(name, requiredType, bean.getClass());
				}
				return convertedBean;
			}
			catch (TypeMismatchException ex) {
				if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
					logger.trace("Failed to convert bean '" + name + "' to required type '" +
							ClassUtils.getQualifiedName(requiredType) + "'", ex);
				}
				throw new BeanNotOfRequiredTypeException(name, requiredType, bean.getClass());
			}
		}
		return (T) bean;
	}

doGetBean的操作流程如下:

1,执行transformedBeanName方法转换beanName

​ 传递的参数可能是bean的alias或者为FactoryBean,transformedBeanName执行的操作:(1)若传进来的FactoryBean(FactoryBean以&作为前缀标记),去掉&修饰符。(2)经过(1)的处理后,有alias的bean则从aliasMap中获取bean的原始beanName。

2,从容器的缓存中获取bean

​ getSingleton先从spring三级缓存中的第一级singletonObjects(Map结构)中获取,若不存在,则检查该bean是否正在创建isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) ,正在创建的bean会从二级缓存earlySingletonObjects(Map结构)获取。获取到缓存的bean后会调用AbstractBeanFactory#getObjectForBeanInstance转换bean的实例本身返回。因为从缓存中拿到的可能是factoryBean,所以getObjectForBeanInstance需要把是通过从缓存factoryBeanObjectCache获取或通过factory.getObject()获得相应的bean返回。

3,bean实例化前检查

​ (1)先检查是否原型模式下的bean是否存在循环依赖,是则会抛异常。

​ (2)检查父类工厂(parentBeanFactory)是否存在,存在则从parentBeanFactory中递归调用doGetBean。

​ (3)获取改bean的beanDefinition,检查该bean实例化过程中是否涉及依赖了其他的bean,若是则递归调用getBean,优先创建依赖的bean。(涉及单例下的循环以来解决,下篇文章详细介绍)。

​ (4)对创建bean代码加synchronized和执行beforeSingletonCreation(beanName)前置处理。

3.3 创建前createBean逻辑

​ 经过前面的doGetBean的一轮检查与准备后,便在AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory#createBean中开始bean的创建。

/**
	 * Central method of this class: creates a bean instance,
	 * populates the bean instance, applies post-processors, etc.
	 * 解析指定 BeanDefinition 的 class
	 * 处理 override 属性
	 * 实例化的前置处理
	 * 创建 bean
	 * @see #doCreateBean
	 */
	@Override
	protected Object createBean(String beanName, RootBeanDefinition mbd, @Nullable Object[] args)
			throws BeanCreationException {

		if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
			logger.trace("Creating instance of bean '" + beanName + "'");
		}
		RootBeanDefinition mbdToUse = mbd;

		// Make sure bean class is actually resolved at this point, and
		// clone the bean definition in case of a dynamically resolved Class
		// which cannot be stored in the shared merged bean definition.
		/**
		 * 解释bean的class,看beanDefinition是否有class,否则load class
		 */
		Class<?> resolvedClass = resolveBeanClass(mbd, beanName);
		if (resolvedClass != null && !mbd.hasBeanClass() && mbd.getBeanClassName() != null) {
			mbdToUse = new RootBeanDefinition(mbd);
			mbdToUse.setBeanClass(resolvedClass);
		}
		/**
		 * 对bean不存在lookup-method 和 replace-method
		 * 标记其方法的overloaded为false
		 */
		// Prepare method overrides.
		try {
			mbdToUse.prepareMethodOverrides();
		}
		catch (BeanDefinitionValidationException ex) {
			throw new BeanDefinitionStoreException(mbdToUse.getResourceDescription(),
					beanName, "Validation of method overrides failed", ex);
		}

		try {
			/**
			 * 调用实现实现BeanPostProcessor的bean后置处理生成代理对象,
			 * 有代理对象则直接返回代理对象
			 */
			// Give BeanPostProcessors a chance to return a proxy instead of the target bean instance.
			Object bean = resolveBeforeInstantiation(beanName, mbdToUse);
			if (bean != null) {
				return bean;
			}
		}
		catch (Throwable ex) {
			throw new BeanCreationException(mbdToUse.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
					"BeanPostProcessor before instantiation of bean failed", ex);
		}

		try {
			/**
			 * 无需代理的bean实例化
			 */
			Object beanInstance = doCreateBean(beanName, mbdToUse, args);
			if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
				logger.trace("Finished creating instance of bean '" + beanName + "'");
			}
			return beanInstance;
		}
		catch (BeanCreationException | ImplicitlyAppearedSingletonException ex) {
			// A previously detected exception with proper bean creation context already,
			// or illegal singleton state to be communicated up to DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.
			throw ex;
		}
		catch (Throwable ex) {
			throw new BeanCreationException(
					mbdToUse.getResourceDescription(), beanName, "Unexpected exception during bean creation", ex);
		}
	}

createBean的操作流程如下:

1,resolveBeanClass

​ 解释beanDefinition的class,并且保存在beanDefinition中。

2,prepareMethodOverrides

​ 处理bean中的lookup-method (在单例bean用 @Lookup注解标记的方法,注解的方法返回的对象是原型)和 replace-method( 标记的方法,标记bean中A的方法被实现被另外一个实现MethodReplacer接口的B方法替代)。

3,resolveBeforeInstantiation

​ 调用实现实现BeanPostProcessor的bean后置处理生成代理对象,有代理对象则直接返回代理对象。(spring AOP则是基于此处实现)

3.4 bean的真正实例化createBeanInstance

​ 在AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory#createBeanInstance中,真正创建bean,源码及注释如下:

protected BeanWrapper createBeanInstance(String beanName, RootBeanDefinition mbd, @Nullable Object[] args) {
		// Make sure bean class is actually resolved at this point.
		Class<?> beanClass = resolveBeanClass(mbd, beanName);
		if (beanClass != null && !Modifier.isPublic(beanClass.getModifiers()) && !mbd.isNonPublicAccessAllowed()) {
			throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
					"Bean class isn't public, and non-public access not allowed: " + beanClass.getName());
		}
		/**
		 * 通过提供supplier回调方法创建
		 */
		Supplier<?> instanceSupplier = mbd.getInstanceSupplier();
		if (instanceSupplier != null) {
			return obtainFromSupplier(instanceSupplier, beanName);
		}
		/**
		 * 通过工厂方法创建 bean 实例,可以是静态工厂方法或者实例工厂
		 */
		if (mbd.getFactoryMethodName() != null) {
			return instantiateUsingFactoryMethod(beanName, mbd, args);
		}
		// Shortcut when re-creating the same bean...
		boolean resolved = false;
		boolean autowireNecessary = false;
		if (args == null) {
			synchronized (mbd.constructorArgumentLock) {
				/**
				 * 查找已经bean已经缓存解析的构造函数或者工厂方法
				 */
				if (mbd.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod != null) {
					resolved = true;
					autowireNecessary = mbd.constructorArgumentsResolved;
				}
			}
		}
		/**
		 * 已经有缓存的构造函数或者工厂方法,直接实例化
		 */
		if (resolved) {
			if (autowireNecessary) {
				return autowireConstructor(beanName, mbd, null, null);
			}
			else {
				return instantiateBean(beanName, mbd);
			}
		}
		/**
		 * 通过实现BeanPostProcessor的代理类autowired的构造函数实例化
		 */
		// Candidate constructors for autowiring?
		Constructor<?>[] ctors = determineConstructorsFromBeanPostProcessors(beanClass, beanName);
		if (ctors != null || mbd.getResolvedAutowireMode() == AUTOWIRE_CONSTRUCTOR ||
				mbd.hasConstructorArgumentValues() || !ObjectUtils.isEmpty(args)) {
			return autowireConstructor(beanName, mbd, ctors, args);
		}
		/**
		 * 通过本身带有autowired的构造函数实例化,通过调用反射newInstance实现
		 */
		// Preferred constructors for default construction?
		ctors = mbd.getPreferredConstructors();
		if (ctors != null) {
			return autowireConstructor(beanName, mbd, ctors, null);
		}
		/**
		 * 无参构造函数实例化,通过调用反射newInstance实现
		 */
		// No special handling: simply use no-arg constructor.
		return instantiateBean(beanName, mbd);
	}

由上述源码可以看出,实例化bean操作流程如下:

1,如果存在 Supplier 回调,则通过提供supplier回调方法创建,如以下方式定义的bean:

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest(classes = Spring5Application.class)
public class BeanRegistrationTest {
    @Autowired
    private GenericWebApplicationContext context;
    
    context.registerBean(A.class, () -> new A());
}

2,如果存在工厂方法,则通过工厂方法创建 bean 实例,可以是静态工厂方法或者实例工厂,如以下方式定义的bean:

public class AFactory implements FactoryBean<A> {
	@Override
	public A getObject() throws Exception {
		return new A();
	}
	@Override
	public Class<?> getObjectType() {
		return A.class;
	}
}
//或:
@Configuration
public class BeanConfigration {
	@Bean
	public A a(){
		return new A();
	}

}

3,已经有缓存的构造函数或者工厂方法,直接实例化。

4,以上三点都不存在,则使用带参构造函数与无参构造函数实例化。如以下方式定义的bean:

@Commponet
public class A{}

4.总结

​ spring单例bean的实例化流程大概就是这样,很多细节地方,包括循环依赖处理,bean属性填充等细节点下一章介绍。

参考

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