深入理解@LoadBalanced注解的实现原理与客户端负载均衡

前提

在阅读这篇博客之前,希望你对SpringCloud套件熟悉和理解,更希望关注下 微服务开发平台

概述

在使用springcloud ribbon客户端负载均衡的时候,可以给RestTemplate bean 加一个@LoadBalanced注解,就能让这个RestTemplate在请求时拥有客户端负载均衡的能力,先前有细嚼过但是没有做过笔记,刚好处理此类问题记录下

@LoadBalanced

/**
 * 注释将RestTemplate bean标记为配置为使用LoadBalancerClient。
 */
@Target({ ElementType.FIELD, ElementType.PARAMETER, ElementType.METHOD })
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Inherited
@Qualifier
public @interface LoadBalanced {
}

通过源码可以发现这是一个 LoadBalanced 标记注解并且标记了 @Qualifier (基于Spring Boot的自动配置机制),我们可以溯源到 LoadBalancerAutoConfiguration

LoadBalancerAutoConfiguration

/**
 * 功能区的自动配置(客户端负载平衡)
 */
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnClass(RestTemplate.class)
@ConditionalOnBean(LoadBalancerClient.class)
@EnableConfigurationProperties(LoadBalancerRetryProperties.class)
public class LoadBalancerAutoConfiguration {

    @LoadBalanced
    @Autowired(required = false)
    private List<RestTemplate> restTemplates = Collections.emptyList();   //这里持有@LoadBalanced标记的RestTemplate实例

    @Autowired(required = false)
    private List<LoadBalancerRequestTransformer> transformers = Collections.emptyList();

    @Bean
    public SmartInitializingSingleton loadBalancedRestTemplateInitializerDeprecated(
            final ObjectProvider<List<RestTemplateCustomizer>> restTemplateCustomizers) {
        return () -> restTemplateCustomizers.ifAvailable(customizers -> {
            for (RestTemplate restTemplate : LoadBalancerAutoConfiguration.this.restTemplates) {
                for (RestTemplateCustomizer customizer : customizers) {
          //为restTemplate添加定制
                    customizer.customize(restTemplate);
                }
            }
        });
    }

   // ... 

    /**
     * 以下针对classpath存在RetryTemplate.class的情况配置,先忽略
     */
    @Configuration
    @ConditionalOnClass(RetryTemplate.class)
    public static class RetryAutoConfiguration {

        @Bean
        @ConditionalOnMissingBean
        public LoadBalancedRetryFactory loadBalancedRetryFactory() {
            return new LoadBalancedRetryFactory() {
            };
        }
    }

  // ... 
}

@LoadBalanced@Autowried 结合使用,意思就是这里注入的 RestTempate Bean是所有加有 @LoadBalanced 注解标记的(持有 @LoadBalanced 标记的RestTemplate实例)

这段自动装配的代码的含义不难理解,就是利用了RestTempllate的拦截器,使用RestTemplateCustomizer对所有标注了@LoadBalanced的RestTemplate Bean添加了一个LoadBalancerInterceptor拦截器,而这个拦截器的作用就是对请求的URI进行转换获取到具体应该请求哪个服务实例ServiceInstance。

关键问下自己:为什么?

  • RestTemplate实例是怎么被收集的?
  • 怎样通过负载均衡规则获取具体的具体的server?

继续扒看源码>

上面可以看出,会 LoadBalancerAutoConfiguration类 对我们加上 @LoadBalanced 注解的bean 添加 loadBalancerInterceptor 拦截器

LoadBalancerInterceptor

/**
* 功能区的自动配置(客户端负载平衡)。
*/
public class LoadBalancerInterceptor implements ClientHttpRequestInterceptor {

    private LoadBalancerClient loadBalancer;

    private LoadBalancerRequestFactory requestFactory;

    public LoadBalancerInterceptor(LoadBalancerClient loadBalancer,
            LoadBalancerRequestFactory requestFactory) {
        this.loadBalancer = loadBalancer;
        this.requestFactory = requestFactory;
    }

    public LoadBalancerInterceptor(LoadBalancerClient loadBalancer) {
        // for backwards compatibility
        this(loadBalancer, new LoadBalancerRequestFactory(loadBalancer));
    }

    @Override
    public ClientHttpResponse intercept(final HttpRequest request, final byte[] body,
            final ClientHttpRequestExecution execution) throws IOException {
        final URI originalUri = request.getURI();
        String serviceName = originalUri.getHost();
        Assert.state(serviceName != null,
                "Request URI does not contain a valid hostname: " + originalUri);
        return this.loadBalancer.execute(serviceName,
                this.requestFactory.createRequest(request, body, execution));
    }

}

重点看intercept方法 当我们restTemplate执行请求操作时,就会被拦截器拦截进入intercept方法,而loadBalancer是LoadBalancerClient的具体实现

RibbonLoadBalancerClient

public <T> T execute(String serviceId, LoadBalancerRequest<T> request, Object hint)
            throws IOException {
        ILoadBalancer loadBalancer = getLoadBalancer(serviceId);
        Server server = getServer(loadBalancer, hint);
        if (server == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("No instances available for " + serviceId);
        }
        RibbonServer ribbonServer = new RibbonServer(serviceId, server,
                isSecure(server, serviceId),
                serverIntrospector(serviceId).getMetadata(server));

        return execute(serviceId, ribbonServer, request);
    }

看到这里相信都遇到过类似的错误,恍然大悟

No instances available for  xxxxx

总结

  • 1.根据serviceId 获取对应的loadBalancer
  • 2.根据loadBalancer获取具体的server(这里根据负载均衡规则,获取到具体的服务实例)
  • 3.创建RibbonServer
  • 4.执行具体请求

这里

注意: @LoadBalanced 标记注解获取到最后通过负载均衡规则获取具体的具体的server来发起请求

案例

/**
 * 服务注册中心配置
 *
 * @author <a href="mailto:shangzhi.ibyte@gmail.com">iByte</a>
 * @since 1.0.1
 */
@Configuration
@EnableConfigurationProperties(ModuleMappingHelper.class)
public class DiscoveryConfig {
    @Autowired
    Environment environment;

    /**
     * DiscoveryHeaderHelper默认bean
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public DiscoveryHeaderHelper discoveryHeaderHelper() {
        DiscoveryHeaderHelper discoveryHeaderHelper = new DiscoveryHeaderHelper(environment);
        DiscoveryHeaderHelper.INSTANCE = discoveryHeaderHelper;
        return discoveryHeaderHelper;
    }

    /**
     * resttemplate构建
     */
    @Resource
    private RestTemplateBuilder restTemplateBuilder;

    /**
     * resttemplate请求bean,更改系统本身的builder
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    @LoadBalanced
    public RestTemplate restTemplate() {
        RestTemplate restTemplate = restTemplateBuilder.configure(new RestTemplate());
        //RestTemplate interceptors 远程调用请求增加头部信息处理
        restTemplate.getInterceptors().add(new RestApiHeaderInterceptor());
        //RestTemplate Set the error handler 错误处理
        restTemplate.setErrorHandler(new RestResponseErrorHandler());
        return  restTemplate;
    }

    @Bean
    public DiscoveryClient.DiscoveryClientOptionalArgs discoveryClientOptionalArgs() {
        DiscoveryClient.DiscoveryClientOptionalArgs discoveryClientOptionalArgs = new DiscoveryClient.DiscoveryClientOptionalArgs();
        discoveryClientOptionalArgs.setAdditionalFilters(Collections.singletonList(new DiscoveryHeaderClientFilter()));
        discoveryClientOptionalArgs.setEventListeners(Collections.singleton(new EurekaClientEventListener()));
        return discoveryClientOptionalArgs;
    }
}

源码地址 > DiscoveryConfig

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