如何使用Python连接ldap

如何使用Python连接ldap

好多使用ldap认证的软件都是Python的,比如superset和airflow, 好吧,他们都是airbnb家的。在配置ldap的时候可能会出现认证失败,你不知道是因为什么导致配置失败的。所以,就要

跟踪源码,看看内部怎么认证实现的。

ldap介绍和使用安装参见: https://www.cnblogs.com/woshimrf/p/ldap.html

登录的源码参见: https://github.com/apache/airflow/blob/70e937a8d8ff308a9fb9055ceb7ef2c034200b36/airflow/contrib/auth/backends/ldap_auth.py#L191

具体来实现如下:

为了模拟环境,我们使用docker-python。基于Debian Python3: https://github.com/Ryan-Miao/docker-china-source/tree/master/docker-python

启动

docker run -it ryan/python:3 /bin/bash

下载ldap3

pip install ldap3

测试连接

root@5edee218d962:/# python
Python 3.7.4 (default, Jul 13 2019, 14:20:24) 
[GCC 6.3.0 20170516] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> from ldap3 import Server, Connection, ALL, NTLM, ALL_ATTRIBUTES, LEVEL, SUBTREE
>>> server = Server('172.17.0.2', get_info=ALL)
>>> conn = Connection(server, 'cn=admin,dc=demo,dc=com', 'admin', auto_bind=True)
>>> conn.extend.standard.who_am_i()
'dn:cn=admin,dc=demo,dc=com'

测试登录部分

登录源码如下:

@staticmethod
    def try_login(username, password):
        conn = get_ldap_connection(configuration.conf.get("ldap", "bind_user"),
                                   configuration.conf.get("ldap", "bind_password"))

        search_filter = "(&({0})({1}={2}))".format(
            configuration.conf.get("ldap", "user_filter"),
            configuration.conf.get("ldap", "user_name_attr"),
            username
        )

        search_scope = LEVEL
        if configuration.conf.has_option("ldap", "search_scope"):
            if configuration.conf.get("ldap", "search_scope") == "SUBTREE":
                search_scope = SUBTREE
            else:
                search_scope = LEVEL

        # todo: BASE or ONELEVEL?

        res = conn.search(configuration.conf.get("ldap", "basedn"), search_filter, search_scope=search_scope)

        # todo: use list or result?
        if not res:
            log.info("Cannot find user %s", username)
            raise AuthenticationError("Invalid username or password")

        entry = conn.response[0]

        conn.unbind()

        if 'dn' not in entry:
            # The search filter for the user did not return any values, so an
            # invalid user was used for credentials.
            raise AuthenticationError("Invalid username or password")

        try:
            conn = get_ldap_connection(entry['dn'], password)
        except KeyError:
            log.error("""
            Unable to parse LDAP structure. If you're using Active Directory
            and not specifying an OU, you must set search_scope=SUBTREE in airflow.cfg.
            %s
            """, traceback.format_exc())
            raise LdapException(
                "Could not parse LDAP structure. "
                "Try setting search_scope in airflow.cfg, or check logs"
            )

        if not conn:
            log.info("Password incorrect for user %s", username)
            raise AuthenticationError("Invalid username or password")

第一步: 获取连接

from ldap3 import Server, Connection, ALL, NTLM, ALL_ATTRIBUTES, LEVEL, SUBTREE


server = Server('172.17.0.2:389', get_info=ALL)
conn = Connection(server, 'cn=admin,dc=demo,dc=com', 'admin', auto_bind=True)
conn.extend.standard.who_am_i()

第二步: 根据filter search用户。 这里我们的配置文件如下:

[ldap]
# set this to ldaps://<your.ldap.server>:<port>
uri = ldap://172.17.0.2:389
user_filter = objectClass=inetOrgPerson
user_name_attr = sn
group_member_attr = memberOf
superuser_filter =
data_profiler_filter =
bind_user = cn=admin,dc=demo,dc=com
bind_password = admin
basedn = dc=demo,dc=com
cacert =
search_scope = SUBTREE

源码就是拼接filter, 最后变成 (&(objectClass=inetOrgPerson)(sn=ryanmiao)) , 然后search scope.

>>> with Connection(server, 'cn=admin,dc=demo,dc=com', 'admin') as conn:
...         conn.search('dc=demo,dc=com', '(&(objectClass=inetOrgPerson)(cn=hr-ryan))', search_scope=SUBTREE)
...         entry = conn.entries[0]
... 
True
>>> entry
DN: cn=hr-ryan,ou=HR,ou=People,dc=demo,dc=com - STATUS: Read - READ TIME: 2019-08-19T12:58:34.966181

第三步: 从上一步得到dn,然后根据用户输入的密码,再次连接, 不抛异常就证明密码正确

>>> conn = Connection(server, 'cn=hr-ryan,ou=HR,ou=People,dc=demo,dc=com', '123456', auto_bind=True)
>>> 
>>> conn = Connection(server, 'cn=hr-ryan,ou=HR,ou=People,dc=demo,dc=com', '1234567', auto_bind=True)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/ldap3/core/connection.py", line 325, in __init__
    self.do_auto_bind()
  File "/usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/ldap3/core/connection.py", line 353, in do_auto_bind
    raise LDAPBindError(self.last_error)
ldap3.core.exceptions.LDAPBindError: automatic bind not successful - invalidCredentials

测试分组

ldap提供了分组,配置见前文。我们采用ldap统一登录之后,还要把用户放入不同的group里来区分权限。比如splunk-users, splunk-admin, gitlab-admin, gitlab-user等。

根据用户名和密码,我们实现了用户登录密码验证,接下来需要取到用户所属于的group。

源码如下:

def groups_user(conn, search_base, user_filter, user_name_att, username):
    search_filter = "(&({0})({1}={2}))".format(user_filter, user_name_att, username)
    try:
        memberof_attr = configuration.conf.get("ldap", "group_member_attr")
    except Exception:
        memberof_attr = "memberOf"
    res = conn.search(search_base, search_filter, attributes=[memberof_attr])
    if not res:
        log.info("Cannot find user %s", username)
        raise AuthenticationError("Invalid username or password")

    if conn.response and memberof_attr not in conn.response[0]["attributes"]:
        log.warning("""Missing attribute "%s" when looked-up in Ldap database.
        The user does not seem to be a member of a group and therefore won't see any dag
        if the option filter_by_owner=True and owner_mode=ldapgroup are set""",
                    memberof_attr)
        return []

    user_groups = conn.response[0]["attributes"][memberof_attr]

    regex = re.compile("cn=([^,]*).*", re.IGNORECASE)
    groups_list = []
    try:
        groups_list = [regex.search(i).group(1) for i in user_groups]
    except IndexError:
        log.warning("Parsing error when retrieving the user's group(s)."
                    " Check if the user belongs to at least one group"
                    " or if the user's groups name do not contain special characters")

    return groups_list

同样,第一步,连接,第二步search,但需要返回字段memberof。注意我们前面配置了 group_member_attr=memberof

>>> with Connection(server, 'cn=admin,dc=demo,dc=com', 'admin') as conn:
...         conn.search('dc=demo,dc=com', '(&(objectClass=inetOrgPerson)(sn=hr-ryan))', attributes=['memberof'])
...         entry = conn.entries[0]
...         entry
... 
True
DN: cn=hr-ryan,ou=HR,ou=People,dc=demo,dc=com - STATUS: Read - READ TIME: 2019-08-19T13:05:20.592805
    memberOf: cn=g-admin,ou=Group,dc=demo,dc=com
              cn=g-users,ou=Group,dc=demo,dc=com
              cn=g-a,ou=Group,dc=demo,dc=com

如果取不到group会报错。

以上就差不多是airflow的ldap配置原理了。其他雷同,不一样的地方也许是在filter的地方,我们找对应软件的源码look一下就ok了。

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